Our country is in a trying time, fighting the COVID-19 Pandemic. We are all in novel territory as schools, bars, restaurants, and many businesses have closed in Louisville, Prospect, Crestwood, Oldham County, and across the state of Kentucky. Here at Dogwood Veterinary Clinic, we are offering drop-offs, pet transportation for sick pets, house calls, and medication delivery in order to accomodate our clients during this time of social distancing. With this virus raising so many questions, we would like to share with you some information about COVID-19 and animals, as well as other coronaviruses that affect animals.
Do I need to worry about my pets getting COVID-19?
Many pet owners wonder if their pets can get COVID-19. According to the AVMA (American Veterinary Medical Association) there is very limited evidence that animals can be infected with this strain; there was one pet that was in a household with someone infected with COVID-19 and tested weakly positive in Hong Kong. The samples were taken by nasal and oral swabs, it is not confirmed if this was due to active infection or fragments of RNA. There was another pet in the household that did not test positive. The pet that tested positive showed no signs of illness while in quarantine and had two subsequent negative tests before the pet was released to go home. Unfortunately, after returning home the pet died. Please do not let this information cause you alarm. The pet was 17 years old, showed no clinical signs while in quarantine, and had ongoing health issues unrelated to COVID-19. On March 19th a second pet tested positive. Similar to the first pet, this pet is in quarantine and is not showing any clinical signs. There is currently no evidence of animals becoming sick from the disease or being able to transmit it to humans by shedding the virus. In the words of the AVMA, “out of an abundance of caution,” the AVMA recommends limiting contact with animals if you are infected with the virus until we know more about it. The concern is that animals can serve as a fomite, meaning if a sick person kisses or snuggles a pet that the pet could carry that virus to another person, although the pet is not sick or shedding the virus. However, the virus is more easily transmitted by non-porous (smooth) surfaces than it is by porous surfaces like pet hair and paper money. Please adhere to social distancing and basic sanitation guidelines recommended by the CDC to prevent infection and slow disease spread.
Are there other types of coronavirus?
Coronavirus is a large family of viruses with many different species-specific strains that affect various species of animals. There are coronaviruses that affect dogs, cats, cattle, horses, chickens, pigs, and turkeys. The clinical signs are usually respiratory or gastrointestinal in nature. Coronaviruses readily mutate, which leads to the emergence of different strains. Since there is far too much information to discuss the disease caused by coronavirus in each of these species, we will share briefly about coronaviruses in cats and dogs.
The canine enteric coronavirus, abbreviated CECoV, can cause gastrointestinal disease in dogs. Most commonly, infection with CECoV is asymptomatic. The disease has been isolated in both normal dogs and dogs with diarrhea. Puppies are most commonly affected, and if they show clinical signs, they may experience lethargy, mild diarrhea, and inappetence. Vaccination for canine enteric coronavirus is available but is not currently recommended as infections usually cause subclinical and self-limiting disease.
There is also a canine respiratory coronavirus, CRCoV, this is a completely different strain of coronavirus than COVID-19 but shows similar signs in dogs such as coughing, sneezing, and nasal discharge. The clinical signs are usually mild. This virus is a part of what we call the canine kennel cough complex, when pets get co-infections with several pathogens causing upper respiratory signs. Pathogens that may be involved are bordetella bronchiseptica, parainfluenza, herpes virus, streptococcus zooepidemicus, mycoplasma, and adenovirus. Canine influenza also causes upper respiratory signs, but is considered separate from the canine kennel cough complex, as it can cause more systemic disease.
Cats can also be infected with coronavirus that causes gastrointestinal signs called feline enteric coronavirus, FECoV. Similar to the canine form, this virus usually causes mild and self-limiting symptoms. Feline infectious peritonitis, FIP, is a mutation of this virus that causes much more severe disease. Not all cats with FECoV will end up with FIP. The virus does not always mutate and some cats are able to mount an effective immune response to clear the virus. However, if a pet is able to clear the virus, they will do so prior to the initiation of clinical signs. There are two forms of FIP, the effusive or granulomatous, otherwise known as wet and dry. The wet form causes accumulations of fluid in the pleural space, the space around the lungs or abdomen and can result in difficulty breathing or abdominal distention. “The dry form causes granulomas – a mass that forms as a result of inflammation – to form in single or multiple organs, including the gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidneys, nervous system, or in the eyes. FIP is progressive and fatal. Cats that are exposed to many other cats, such as feral cats, are most at risk. Unfortunately, there is no vaccine at this time. There is evidence that concurrent disease can make pets more susceptible to this disease. Therefore, limiting your cat’s exposure to other cats, twice annual veterinary exams, and performing recommended testing to ensure your pet is not affected with underlying disease is currently the best way to prevent your cat from developing this disease.
We hope you learned something new about Coronaviruses and animals and that you have been reassured that your pets are safe from COVID-19. We are thinking of and praying for our country and our world as we combat this highly contagious virus. For detailed instructions of what you can do to help slow the spread of COVID-19, please visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at cdc.gov. If you have any questions about our services and how we can accomodate you during this time of social distancing, please contact our hospital. You can find our contact information here at https://www.dogwoodvetclinic.com/contact/.